December 30, 2009

Geologist List - 100

The geologist's 100 things memento, from Geotripper.

Bold the ones you have done:

1. See an erupting volcano
2. See a glacier [Alaska] [Iceland from the air]
3. See an active geyser such as those in Yellowstone, New Zealand or the type locality of Iceland [Yellowstone.]
4. Visit the Cretaceous/Tertiary (KT) Boundary. Possible locations include Gubbio, Italy, Stevns Klint, Denmark, the Red Deer River Valley near Drumheller, Alberta.
5. Observe (from a safe distance) a river whose discharge is above bankful stage
6. Explore a limestone cave. Try Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico, Lehman Caves in Great Basin National Park, or the caves of Kentucky or TAG (Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia
7. Tour an open pit mine, such as those in Butte, Montana, Bingham Canyon, Utah, Summitville, Colorado, Globe or Morenci, Arizona, or Chuquicamata, Chile.
8. Explore a subsurface mine.
9. See an ophiolite, such as the ophiolite complex in Oman or the Troodos complex on the Island Cyprus (if on a budget, try the Coast Ranges or Klamath Mountains of California). [Maybe?]
10. An anorthosite complex, such as those in Labrador, the Adirondacks, and Niger (there's some anorthosite in southern California too).
11. A slot canyon. Many of these amazing canyons are less than 3 feet wide and over 100 feet deep. They reside on the Colorado Plateau.
12. Varves, whether you see the type section in Sweden or examples elsewhere.
13. An exfoliation dome, such as those in the Sierra Nevada. [Yosemite.]
14. A layered igneous intrusion, such as the Stillwater complex in Montana or the Skaergaard Complex in Eastern Greenland.
15. Coastlines along the leading and trailing edge of a tectonic plate
16. A gingko tree, which is the lone survivor of an ancient group of softwoods that covered much of the Northern Hemisphere in the Mesozoic.
17. Living and fossilized stromatolites (Glacier National Park is a great place to see fossil stromatolites, while Shark Bay in Australia is the place to see living ones)
18. A field of glacial erratics
19. A caldera [Yellowstone]
20. A sand dune more than 200 feet high
21. A fjord
22. A recently formed fault scarp
23. A megabreccia
24. An actively accreting river delta
25. A natural bridge [Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah]
26. A large sinkhole
27. A glacial outwash plain [Germany]
28. A sea stack [Lookin out my window!]
29. A house-sized glacial erratic [Lassen]
30. An underground lake or river
31. The continental divide [3: Rockies, Appalachian, Alps]
32. Fluorescent and phosphorescent minerals
33. Petrified trees
34. Lava tubes [Lava Tubes National Park!]
35. The Grand Canyon. All the way down. And back. [Only from the rim.]
36. Meteor Crater, Arizona, also known as the Barringer Crater, to see an impact crater on a scale that is comprehensible.
37. The Great Barrier Reef, northeastern Australia, to see the largest coral reef in the world.
38. The Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada, to see the highest tides in the world (up to 16m)
39. The Waterpocket Fold, Utah, to see well exposed folds on a massive scale.
40. The Banded Iron Formation, Michigan, to better appreciate the air you breathe.
41. The Snows of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania,
42. Lake Baikal, Siberia, to see the deepest lake in the world (1,620 m) with 20 percent of the Earth's fresh water. [My dream, I WISH!]
43. Ayers Rock (known now by the Aboriginal name of Uluru), Australia. This inselberg of nearly vertical Precambrian strata is about 2.5 kilometers long and more than 350 meters high
44. Devil's Tower, northeastern Wyoming, to see a classic example of columnar jointing
45. The Alps.
46. Telescope Peak, in Death Valley National Park. From this spectacular summit you can look down onto the floor of Death Valley - 11,330 feet below.
47. The Li River, China, to see the fantastic tower karst that appears in much Chinese art
48. The Dalmation Coast of Croatia, to see the original Karst.
49. The Gorge of Bhagirathi, one of the sacred headwaters of the Ganges, in the Indian Himalayas, where the river flows from an ice tunnel beneath the Gangatori Glacier into a deep gorge.
50. The Goosenecks of the San Juan River, Utah, an impressive series of entrenched meanders.
51. Shiprock, New Mexico, to see a large volcanic neck
52. Land's End, Cornwall, Great Britain, for fractured granites that have feldspar crystals bigger than your fist.
53. Tierra del Fuego, Chile and Argentina, to see the Straights of Magellan and the southernmost tip of South America.
54. Mount St. Helens, Washington, to see the results of recent explosive volcanism.
55. The Giant's Causeway and the Antrim Plateau, Northern Ireland, to see polygonally fractured basaltic flows.
56. The Great Rift Valley in Africa.
57. The Matterhorn, along the Swiss/Italian border, to see the classic "horn".
58. The Carolina Bays, along the Carolinian and Georgian coastal plain
59. The Mima Mounds near Olympia, Washington
60. Siccar Point, Berwickshire, Scotland, where James Hutton (the "father" of modern geology) observed the classic unconformity
61. The moving rocks of Racetrack Playa in Death Valley
62. Yosemite Valley
63. Landscape Arch (or Delicate Arch) in Utah
64. The Burgess Shale in British Columbia
65. The Channeled Scablands of central Washington
66. Bryce Canyon
67. Grand Prismatic Spring at Yellowstone
68. Monument Valley
69. The San Andreas fault
70. The dinosaur footprints in La Rioja, Spain
71. The volcanic landscapes of the Canary Islands
72. The Pyrennees Mountains
73. The Lime Caves at Karamea on the West Coast of New Zealand
74. Denali (an orogeny in progress)
75. A catastrophic mass wasting event
76. The giant crossbeds visible at Zion National Park
77. The black sand beaches in Hawaii (or the green sand-olivine beaches)
78. Barton Springs in Texas
79. Hells Canyon in Idaho
80. The Black Canyon of the Gunnison in Colorado
81. The Tunguska Impact site in Siberia
82. Feel an earthquake with a magnitude greater than 5.0.
83. Find dinosaur footprints in situ
84. Find a trilobite (or a dinosaur bone or any other fossil)
85. Find gold, however small the flake
86. Find a meteorite fragment
87. Experience a volcanic ashfall
88. Experience a sandstorm
89. See a tsunami
90. Witness a total solar eclipse
91. Witness a tornado firsthand. (Important rules of this game).
92. Witness a meteor storm, a term used to describe a particularly intense (1000+ per minute) meteor shower
93. View Saturn and its moons through a respectable telescope.
94. See the Aurora borealis, otherwise known as the northern lights.
95. View a great naked-eye comet, an opportunity which occurs only a few times per century [I've seen the Northern Lights and one of the spectacular comets of the 1990's at the same time. Possibly the most amazing thing I've ever witnessed.]
96. See a lunar eclipse
97. View a distant galaxy through a large telescope
98. Experience a hurricane
99. See noctilucent clouds
100. See the green flash

December 24, 2009

Bukit batu kapur Gua Bama, Lipis

Bukit batu kapur yang dinamakan sebagai Gua Bama ini dapat diperhatikan di tepi Jalanraya K.Lipis ke G.Musang berhampiran pekan Padang Tengku. Bukit batu kapur ini berketinggian kira-kira 60m dengan panjang 400m. Hampir keseluruhannya dibentuk oleh batu kapur masif dan batu kapur berlapis tebal. Usianya telah lama dianggarkan berusia Karbon tetapi tanpa sebarang bukti paleontologi. Metcalfe (1995) melaporkan penemuan fosil konodon berusia Perm Akhir manakala Shafeea Leman pula melaporkan penemuan foraminifera juga berusia Perm Akhir. Batuan berargilit yang kebanyakkannya bertuf di sekeliling gua Bama dilaporkan mempunyai fosil brakiopod Perm. Dari kajian terkini, Sone & Shafeea Leman (2004) melaporkan penemuan cengkerang nautiloid Sibyllonautilus bamaensis SONE sp. nov. dalam batu kapur tersebut yang dianggarkan berusia Ladinian Awal.

Batu kapur ini adalah singkapan yang terakhir dari jujukan batu kapur Gua Musang yang kemudiannya timbul semula di Kota Gelanggi (Batu Kapur Kota Gelanggi) dan di Jengka (Batu Kapur Gunung Senyum dan Jebak Puyuh) selepas ditindih oleh Kumpulan Tembeling. Kajian lanjut perlu dilakukan bagi menentukan usia sebenar batu kapur ini, bukan sahaja di Gua Bama malah kesemua jujukan batu kapur yang memanjang dari utara ke selatan Semenanjung Malaysia kerana kebanyakkan batu kapur dari Kumpulan Gua Musang adalah berusia Perm Tengah sehingga Trias Awal. Bertukaran fasies dari karbonat kepada berargilit, mungkin menandakan perubahan usia atau sempadan usia Perm-Trias.

Terdapat beberapa fitur menarik di bukit Gua Bama seperti perlapisan batu kapur masif dgn yang berlapis, syal bertuf dgn syal berkapur, sempadan transisi syal bertuf dgn batu kapur, sempadan hakisan syal bertuf dan batu kapur, lipatan gelongsoran dan sisipan tuf dalam batu kapur.